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See: The two leading causes of death and disability in the developed world are depression and cardiovascular disease.
The association between depression and cardiovascular disease is well established in adults,1 although the mechanisms by which it arises are still not clear.
Main outcome measures The new-onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, fourth edition defined depressive disorder in the offspring using established research diagnostic assessments—the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment in the high-risk sample and the Development and Wellbeing Assessment in the replication sample.
Results Blood pressure was standardised for age and gender to create SD scores and child's weight was statistically controlled in all analyses.
They suggest that depression is associated with low blood pressure and that it is only depression treated with certain antidepressants which is associated with high blood pressure.3 To guide the study of mechanisms by which the links between cardiovascular risk factors, notably blood pressure and depression may arise, it is important to first ascertain the direction of effects.
In the few longitudinal studies in this area, the findings are inconsistent, with some studies finding depression as a predictor of either high blood pressure4 or low blood pressure,5 while others have found the converse, with low blood pressure predicting depression.6 Although depression and the early indicators of cardiovascular disease have been found to have the onset in childhood and adolescence,7 8 very few studies have focused on these links in younger populations.
The parent and child versions were completed independently, with interviews conducted in separate rooms where possible and in 99% of cases, by separate researchers.
This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial.Additional exclusion criteria included children with moderate–severe intellectual disability (IQ Data were also utilised from a birth cohort study ‘The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)’ to allow replication of findings from the first high-risk sample.The cohort was set up to examine genetic and environmental determinants of health and development.10 The initial cohort consisted of 14 062 children born to residents of the Bristol area, the UK, who had an expected date of delivery between 1 April 1991 and 31 December 1992 (: The Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) is a semistructured research diagnostic interview that has high reliability and that is used to assess children's psychiatric symptoms.11 Parents are asked about their children's psychopathology and children are independently interviewed using the interview schedules (parent and child versions).The presence of any given symptom has to be rigorously assessed and only endorsed by the interviewer when it achieves the CAPA-defined symptom threshold.
All pregnant women resident in three health districts in the old administrative county of Avon who had an estimated delivery between the above dates were eligible to participate.